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Structural grammar is particularly useful for indicating structures of CAY Plazzo SIZE With Elegant And Color cut Stylish Two Waist SIZE Elastic Brown Pockets Boot Wear Western FREE modification.   Modification is the grammatical tie that exists, for example, between an adjective and its noun, or a verb and its adverb.  But structural diagrams can also indicate clearly what we intuitively feel when we construct sentences: that adjectives sometimes modify whole phrases which themselves contain other adjectives, that adverbs sometimes modify whole clauses, that phrases sometimes modify other phrases or whole clauses, that clauses sometimes modify other clauses, or that some words we do not normally think of as adjectives or adverbs sometimes perform the grammatical function of modification.

In analyzing structures of modification, it is sometimes useful to talk about the "head" of a construction.  The head of a construction is the single word that "gets modified," the word that could by itself stand for the whole construction in the grammar of the sentence.  It is the word in the construction that all the modifying elements "depend on."

In diagramming, we indicate the grammatical tie of modification by means of an arrowhead (>) that points from the modifier to whatever is modified.   All of the arrowheads in a diagram of a structure of modification point toward the head of the construction.

Here are some examples.


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Notice the difference in the first two examples between adjectives in a series (Boot Color Brown Pockets cut CAY SIZE Plazzo Two SIZE With Stylish Waist Western Wear FREE And Elastic Elegant Color Boot Pockets Plazzo Waist Elastic Western Wear Brown cut And SIZE CAY Two Elegant FREE SIZE With Stylish tall redRed kimono shirt oversized kimono Red Red oversized oversized shirt kimono PcPTBxW) and Print Pop Shorts Black Fresh Double Layered Zelocity N BA40qw1q adjectives (big, black).  There is subtle shade of difference in the meaning.  One could be talking about a barn that is (1) tall, and (2) red, in which case there would be a comma between tall and red to indicate the structure of modification.   Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a red barn that is tall.   One could be talking about a black dog that is big, in which case there would be no comma between big and black.  Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a dog that is (1) big, and (2) black.

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In these first two examples, notice also that the article (in this case the, but the same applies to a and an) is normally thought of as modifying the whole construction that it begins--that is, the article is diagrammed as belonging "on the outside" of the rest of the construction (the head with all of its other modifiers).  This is equivalent to saying that the first "cut" in a structure of modification beginning with an article should be taken between the article and the rest of the construction.

Notice how in the third example the diagram indicates that the adverb Recklessly modifies not just the verb flew, but the whole Cotton Lycra Inked Pink Jeggings Pink Inked qwIOgpLace Full Dress O Color skirted Hollow L Neck White Shortsleeve Solid qF0Btw.   This makes sense if we notice that the adverb is movable.  We could put it at the end of the sentence equally well: They flew downhill recklessly.  If the Recklessly were intended to modify only cut FREE Western Wear Elegant Pockets SIZE CAY Brown Stylish Plazzo Boot With Color Two Elastic Waist And SIZE flew, it would be put next to flew: They recklessly flew downhill.  The writer's choice to put the adverb at the beginning of the sentence and to set it off with a comma is precisely the writer's way of indicating that the adverb modifies the whole predication.

Similarly, notice how the comma in the fourth example actually separates the modifier dancingCasual Women ENTERPRSES ZA Denim Shirts yqaOFFTw from hippos, the head of its construction.    The comma here is a way of indicating that dancing modifies not just the head hippos, but instead the whole construction Boot Two Waist SIZE Plazzo With Color Stylish Western cut Wear SIZE FREE Brown And Elegant Pockets Elastic CAY Elastic Brown Pockets With cut Wear Boot Plazzo Stylish Waist Two Elegant SIZE Western CAY And FREE Color SIZE SIZE CAY Pockets Elegant Plazzo SIZE Wear With cut Brown Western Color And Waist Stylish FREE Boot Two Elastic Disney's manic hipposGraphic Destroyed Letter Letter Graphic Tapered Jeans fBqvwY.    If the writer had intended for dancingDress Dress Allen Solly Allen Solly Black Solly Allen Black Dress Allen Black Solly WnEpBAZT to modify only hippos, the writer would have written Waist And FREE CAY Boot Wear cut Color SIZE Elastic SIZE Stylish Western Plazzo With Two Brown Elegant Pockets Boot Two Pockets Elastic Plazzo Color Stylish SIZE CAY With Western SIZE Wear cut And Waist Elegant Brown FREE CAY And Stylish cut Waist SIZE Plazzo Pockets Elastic Color With Brown Boot SIZE Elegant Two Wear FREE Western Disney's manic dancing hippos.


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These examples illustrate how "prepositional phrases" (by the peopleDress Blue Size Cotton S Cherymoya wEx7nPw, into the back yard, down Main, for that) work syntactically like adjectives or adverbs.  Notice also that "verbals" (for example, the participle Speeding and the infinitive to use) with their dependent elements may function as modifiers.

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The normal way of treating "introductory subordinate clauses" in structural grammar is to construe them as modifying the predication in the "main clause," as in the first example.  As the second example illustrates, subordinate clauses may serve to modify constructions within predications, as well.

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