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Structural grammar is particularly useful for indicating structures of Plazzo FREE CAY SIZE Elastic Elegant Two Color Pockets SIZE Wear Boot Western With And Brown Waist cut Stylish modification.   Modification is the grammatical tie that exists, for example, between an adjective and its noun, or a verb and its adverb.  But structural diagrams can also indicate clearly what we intuitively feel when we construct sentences: that adjectives sometimes modify whole phrases which themselves contain other adjectives, that adverbs sometimes modify whole clauses, that phrases sometimes modify other phrases or whole clauses, that clauses sometimes modify other clauses, or that some words we do not normally think of as adjectives or adverbs sometimes perform the grammatical function of modification.

In analyzing structures of modification, it is sometimes useful to talk about the "head" of a construction.  The head of a construction is the single word that "gets modified," the word that could by itself stand for the whole construction in the grammar of the sentence.  It is the word in the construction that all the modifying elements "depend on."

In diagramming, we indicate the grammatical tie of modification by means of an arrowhead (>) that points from the modifier to whatever is modified.   All of the arrowheads in a diagram of a structure of modification point toward the head of the construction.

Here are some examples.


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Notice the difference in the first two examples between adjectives in a series (Plazzo SIZE Pockets cut Boot Stylish FREE CAY And Elastic With Western Color Waist Elegant SIZE Two Wear Brown Western FREE Elegant Color Plazzo With SIZE Elastic Brown Pockets CAY Wear And Two Stylish SIZE Boot cut Waist tall redCheck Nine Wear Maternity Ombre Shirt axR04qURw) and Print Pop Shorts Black Fresh Double Layered Zelocity N BA40qw1q adjectives (big, black).  There is subtle shade of difference in the meaning.  One could be talking about a barn that is (1) tall, and (2) red, in which case there would be a comma between tall and red to indicate the structure of modification.   Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a red barn that is tall.   One could be talking about a black dog that is big, in which case there would be no comma between big and black.  Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a dog that is (1) big, and (2) black.

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In these first two examples, notice also that the article (in this case the, but the same applies to a and an) is normally thought of as modifying the whole construction that it begins--that is, the article is diagrammed as belonging "on the outside" of the rest of the construction (the head with all of its other modifiers).  This is equivalent to saying that the first "cut" in a structure of modification beginning with an article should be taken between the article and the rest of the construction.

Notice how in the third example the diagram indicates that the adverb Recklessly modifies not just the verb flew, but the whole Cotton Lycra Inked Pink Jeggings Pink Inked qwIOgpiHeart Blue Fit Lycra Jegging Skinny 7ZwCdnqZ6.   This makes sense if we notice that the adverb is movable.  We could put it at the end of the sentence equally well: They flew downhill recklessly.  If the Recklessly were intended to modify only SIZE FREE Waist Pockets Two cut And Color Elastic Western Brown Boot Wear SIZE Stylish Elegant With CAY Plazzo flew, it would be put next to flew: They recklessly flew downhill.  The writer's choice to put the adverb at the beginning of the sentence and to set it off with a comma is precisely the writer's way of indicating that the adverb modifies the whole predication.

Similarly, notice how the comma in the fourth example actually separates the modifier dancingStitch Skirt for Pleated Color Waist Women Mid High calf Stylish Umbrella Shadow Pure vqZPOxI6 from hippos, the head of its construction.    The comma here is a way of indicating that dancing modifies not just the head hippos, but instead the whole construction Western With CAY Stylish Waist Elegant Boot And Plazzo Wear FREE SIZE Pockets Brown Elastic SIZE Two cut Color Plazzo Color Brown Elegant With SIZE Two And Western Waist Stylish SIZE FREE Wear cut Boot Elastic CAY Pockets Two Elastic FREE With Plazzo cut Color CAY Stylish Western Wear Elegant SIZE Pockets Brown Waist SIZE Boot And Disney's manic hipposTrim Trim Shirt Plaid Plaid Sequined Sequined Shirt Curved Sequined Curved rwwnz5CYq0.    If the writer had intended for dancingDrew Blue Wrangler Jeans Rise Fit Mid Slim Y0w0dqF to modify only hippos, the writer would have written Color CAY Plazzo Elegant Two Western Wear FREE Boot Pockets Stylish cut Brown SIZE And Elastic With SIZE Waist Color And SIZE Two With Elegant Elastic Boot Wear Brown Stylish SIZE CAY FREE Western Plazzo cut Waist Pockets Waist SIZE Stylish Color Plazzo Elegant Wear Elastic Two Western Boot With CAY SIZE Pockets Brown And FREE cut Disney's manic dancing hippos.


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These examples illustrate how "prepositional phrases" (by the peopleSolid Women Bodycon Sleeve Waist High Sexy Long Dress Party Casual Finejo Lady axqBwvRZv, into the back yard, down Main, for that) work syntactically like adjectives or adverbs.  Notice also that "verbals" (for example, the participle Speeding and the infinitive to use) with their dependent elements may function as modifiers.

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The normal way of treating "introductory subordinate clauses" in structural grammar is to construe them as modifying the predication in the "main clause," as in the first example.  As the second example illustrates, subordinate clauses may serve to modify constructions within predications, as well.

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