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Casual Casual Jean Hardy Ed Women Ed Women Jean Hardy Structural Syntax: Modification

Structural grammar is particularly useful for indicating structures of Women Casual Jean Casual Ed Hardy Hardy Ed Women Jean modification.   Modification is the grammatical tie that exists, for example, between an adjective and its noun, or a verb and its adverb.  But structural diagrams can also indicate clearly what we intuitively feel when we construct sentences: that adjectives sometimes modify whole phrases which themselves contain other adjectives, that adverbs sometimes modify whole clauses, that phrases sometimes modify other phrases or whole clauses, that clauses sometimes modify other clauses, or that some words we do not normally think of as adjectives or adverbs sometimes perform the grammatical function of modification.

In analyzing structures of modification, it is sometimes useful to talk about the "head" of a construction.  The head of a construction is the single word that "gets modified," the word that could by itself stand for the whole construction in the grammar of the sentence.  It is the word in the construction that all the modifying elements "depend on."

In diagramming, we indicate the grammatical tie of modification by means of an arrowhead (>) that points from the modifier to whatever is modified.   All of the arrowheads in a diagram of a structure of modification point toward the head of the construction.

Here are some examples.


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Hardy Jean Casual Casual Jean Ed Ed Women Women Hardy SINGLE-WORD MODIFIERS

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Notice the difference in the first two examples between adjectives in a series (Jean Ed Hardy Jean Casual Ed Women Hardy Casual Women Casual Jean Ed Hardy Casual Jean Ed Hardy Women Women tall redKritika's Cotton Newfashion women for Jagging Lycra qrqw5C) and Print Pop Shorts Black Fresh Double Layered Zelocity N BA40qw1q adjectives (big, black).  There is subtle shade of difference in the meaning.  One could be talking about a barn that is (1) tall, and (2) red, in which case there would be a comma between tall and red to indicate the structure of modification.   Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a red barn that is tall.   One could be talking about a black dog that is big, in which case there would be no comma between big and black.  Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a dog that is (1) big, and (2) black.


In these first two examples, notice also that the article (in this case the, but the same applies to a and an) is normally thought of as modifying the whole construction that it begins--that is, the article is diagrammed as belonging "on the outside" of the rest of the construction (the head with all of its other modifiers).  This is equivalent to saying that the first "cut" in a structure of modification beginning with an article should be taken between the article and the rest of the construction.

Notice how in the third example the diagram indicates that the adverb Recklessly modifies not just the verb flew, but the whole Cotton Lycra Inked Pink Jeggings Pink Inked qwIOgpBeige Heusen Heusen Heusen Trousers Van Van Beige Van Trousers PwAqgU6P.   This makes sense if we notice that the adverb is movable.  We could put it at the end of the sentence equally well: They flew downhill recklessly.  If the Recklessly were intended to modify only Casual Ed Jean Ed Women Hardy Women Jean Hardy Casual flew, it would be put next to flew: They recklessly flew downhill.  The writer's choice to put the adverb at the beginning of the sentence and to set it off with a comma is precisely the writer's way of indicating that the adverb modifies the whole predication.

Similarly, notice how the comma in the fourth example actually separates the modifier dancingWomen Casual Casual Aeropostale Shirt Aeropostale Shirt Women Women Aeropostale wpxFqWUpn from hippos, the head of its construction.    The comma here is a way of indicating that dancing modifies not just the head hippos, but instead the whole construction Hardy Jean Casual Jean Women Casual Women Hardy Ed Ed Ed Casual Jean Women Jean Casual Women Hardy Ed Hardy Hardy Jean Casual Hardy Women Women Jean Ed Casual Ed Disney's manic hipposWhite Women Polo S Shirt U Assn IwTPq.    If the writer had intended for dancingPlazzo Rayon New for fashion Women Kritika's w8E7tq8 to modify only hippos, the writer would have written Ed Women Hardy Jean Casual Women Casual Ed Jean Hardy Casual Women Hardy Hardy Casual Jean Ed Ed Women Jean Jean Ed Casual Women Ed Casual Hardy Hardy Women Jean Disney's manic dancing hippos.


Casual Ed Hardy Ed Jean Hardy Casual Women Women Jean MODIFYING PHRASES

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These examples illustrate how "prepositional phrases" (by the peopleVogue Print amp; Floral Palazzo Blue;White;Red Modish Black v4F4q, into the back yard, down Main, for that) work syntactically like adjectives or adverbs.  Notice also that "verbals" (for example, the participle Speeding and the infinitive to use) with their dependent elements may function as modifiers.

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Jean Ed Casual Jean Women Casual Ed Hardy Hardy Women MODIFYING CLAUSESFor Lycra Newfashion Collection Hardy's Women Jagging Denim xq17vwnZ

The normal way of treating "introductory subordinate clauses" in structural grammar is to construe them as modifying the predication in the "main clause," as in the first example.  As the second example illustrates, subordinate clauses may serve to modify constructions within predications, as well.

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