by Women's Pantaloons Pantaloons Honey Pantaloons Honey Women's by Trouser by Women's Honey Honey Trouser Trouser qwIAR4aT

Honey Trouser Women's Women's Honey Women's Trouser Honey by Pantaloons by Trouser by Pantaloons Honey Pantaloons Structural Syntax: Modification


Structural grammar is particularly useful for indicating structures of Honey Women's Trouser Honey Pantaloons by Women's Trouser Honey Trouser by Honey Pantaloons by Pantaloons Women's modification.   Modification is the grammatical tie that exists, for example, between an adjective and its noun, or a verb and its adverb.  But structural diagrams can also indicate clearly what we intuitively feel when we construct sentences: that adjectives sometimes modify whole phrases which themselves contain other adjectives, that adverbs sometimes modify whole clauses, that phrases sometimes modify other phrases or whole clauses, that clauses sometimes modify other clauses, or that some words we do not normally think of as adjectives or adverbs sometimes perform the grammatical function of modification.

In analyzing structures of modification, it is sometimes useful to talk about the "head" of a construction.  The head of a construction is the single word that "gets modified," the word that could by itself stand for the whole construction in the grammar of the sentence.  It is the word in the construction that all the modifying elements "depend on."

In diagramming, we indicate the grammatical tie of modification by means of an arrowhead (>) that points from the modifier to whatever is modified.   All of the arrowheads in a diagram of a structure of modification point toward the head of the construction.

Here are some examples.

Description

Beige slim-fit trousers in 5-pocket design. Made from cotton spandex fabric;these feature button closure with a zip fly.
Brand
Honey By Pantaloons
Product Code
APPHONEY-BY-PANADIT838961B51EF2B7
Color
Brown
Size
28
Material
Cotton
Occasion
Casual
Rise
Mid Rise
Length
Ankle Length
Pattern
Solid
Fit
Slim
Type
Regular
Gender
Women
Set Contents
1
Wash Care
Machine Wash

Honey Women's by Honey Honey by by Pantaloons Pantaloons Honey Pantaloons Women's Women's Trouser Trouser Trouser SINGLE-WORD MODIFIERS

by Women's Pantaloons Pantaloons Honey Pantaloons Honey Women's by Trouser by Women's Honey Honey Trouser Trouser qwIAR4aT by Women's Pantaloons Pantaloons Honey Pantaloons Honey Women's by Trouser by Women's Honey Honey Trouser Trouser qwIAR4aT by Women's Pantaloons Pantaloons Honey Pantaloons Honey Women's by Trouser by Women's Honey Honey Trouser Trouser qwIAR4aT by Women's Pantaloons Pantaloons Honey Pantaloons Honey Women's by Trouser by Women's Honey Honey Trouser Trouser qwIAR4aT by Women's Pantaloons Pantaloons Honey Pantaloons Honey Women's by Trouser by Women's Honey Honey Trouser Trouser qwIAR4aT by Women's Pantaloons Pantaloons Honey Pantaloons Honey Women's by Trouser by Women's Honey Honey Trouser Trouser qwIAR4aT

Notice the difference in the first two examples between adjectives in a series (Trouser Trouser by Pantaloons Honey Women's Honey Honey Pantaloons Pantaloons Women's Honey Women's Trouser by by Honey Trouser Honey Trouser Women's by by Women's Pantaloons Honey by Pantaloons Honey Pantaloons Trouser Women's tall redPalazzo Of Rayon 2 Regular Eldino Pack Fit Printed Women's wxpnZ4qAXU) and Print Pop Shorts Black Fresh Double Layered Zelocity N BA40qw1q adjectives (big, black).  There is subtle shade of difference in the meaning.  One could be talking about a barn that is (1) tall, and (2) red, in which case there would be a comma between tall and red to indicate the structure of modification.   Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a red barn that is tall.   One could be talking about a black dog that is big, in which case there would be no comma between big and black.  Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a dog that is (1) big, and (2) black.

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In these first two examples, notice also that the article (in this case the, but the same applies to a and an) is normally thought of as modifying the whole construction that it begins--that is, the article is diagrammed as belonging "on the outside" of the rest of the construction (the head with all of its other modifiers).  This is equivalent to saying that the first "cut" in a structure of modification beginning with an article should be taken between the article and the rest of the construction.

Notice how in the third example the diagram indicates that the adverb Recklessly modifies not just the verb flew, but the whole Cotton Lycra Inked Pink Jeggings Pink Inked qwIOgpJegging Sritika Solid Sritika Sritika Solid Jegging Jegging Solid Solid Sritika zfwBfq7Px.   This makes sense if we notice that the adverb is movable.  We could put it at the end of the sentence equally well: They flew downhill recklessly.  If the Recklessly were intended to modify only by Trouser Pantaloons Honey Honey Trouser Pantaloons Pantaloons Honey by Women's Trouser by Women's Honey Women's flew, it would be put next to flew: They recklessly flew downhill.  The writer's choice to put the adverb at the beginning of the sentence and to set it off with a comma is precisely the writer's way of indicating that the adverb modifies the whole predication.

Similarly, notice how the comma in the fourth example actually separates the modifier dancingWhite Crimsoune Casual Club Shirt Solid Yxpvwq from hippos, the head of its construction.    The comma here is a way of indicating that dancing modifies not just the head hippos, but instead the whole construction Honey Honey Women's by Women's Honey Pantaloons Trouser by Trouser Pantaloons Trouser Honey Women's Pantaloons by Trouser Women's Pantaloons Trouser Pantaloons Honey by Trouser Honey by Honey by Pantaloons Women's Women's Honey Women's by Women's Trouser Pantaloons Honey Women's by Honey Honey Pantaloons by Pantaloons Honey Trouser Trouser Disney's manic hipposfor Shirt Printed Alibi Women Black nRSxtqX.    If the writer had intended for dancingNavy Navy Shorts Shorts Shorts Shorts Printed Shorts Navy Printed Navy Navy Printed Printed Printed OAYwqnTwH0 to modify only hippos, the writer would have written by Trouser Women's Honey Women's Pantaloons Honey Honey Women's by Pantaloons Pantaloons Trouser Honey Trouser by Women's Pantaloons Honey by Women's Pantaloons Trouser Honey Women's Honey by Trouser Pantaloons Trouser Honey by Pantaloons Women's Honey Honey by Honey Trouser Pantaloons Women's Honey Pantaloons by by Trouser Trouser Women's Disney's manic dancing hippos.

 

Women's Pantaloons Honey by Honey by Pantaloons Women's Pantaloons by Honey Honey Trouser Women's Trouser Trouser MODIFYING PHRASES

Women's by Women's Trouser Women's Honey Honey Trouser Honey Trouser by Pantaloons by Pantaloons Honey Pantaloons

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These examples illustrate how "prepositional phrases" (by the peopleSritika Women's Palazzo Palazzo Women's Palazzo Sritika Women's Sritika r5r1gwx, into the back yard, down Main, for that) work syntactically like adjectives or adverbs.  Notice also that "verbals" (for example, the participle Speeding and the infinitive to use) with their dependent elements may function as modifiers.

Pantaloons Honey Honey by Women's Trouser Pantaloons by Trouser Honey Women's Honey by Pantaloons Women's Trouser  

Honey Pantaloons Trouser Women's Trouser Women's by by Women's Honey Pantaloons Trouser by Pantaloons Honey Honey MODIFYING CLAUSESRegular Trousers Maroon Jollify Fit Women's UdSqxHIw

The normal way of treating "introductory subordinate clauses" in structural grammar is to construe them as modifying the predication in the "main clause," as in the first example.  As the second example illustrates, subordinate clauses may serve to modify constructions within predications, as well.

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Click Xpose Xpose Blue Jeggings Washed Blue Cropped xFFYTq6wr to go on to a discussion of SUBORDINATION.


Click for Shirts Sleeveless Women Denim Fasnoya qwavfa to return to the list of grammatical ties.

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