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Printed Fabyou Plazzo Plazzo Printed Women's Women's Fabyou Structural Syntax: Modification

Structural grammar is particularly useful for indicating structures of Women's Printed Fabyou Fabyou Women's Plazzo Printed Plazzo modification.   Modification is the grammatical tie that exists, for example, between an adjective and its noun, or a verb and its adverb.  But structural diagrams can also indicate clearly what we intuitively feel when we construct sentences: that adjectives sometimes modify whole phrases which themselves contain other adjectives, that adverbs sometimes modify whole clauses, that phrases sometimes modify other phrases or whole clauses, that clauses sometimes modify other clauses, or that some words we do not normally think of as adjectives or adverbs sometimes perform the grammatical function of modification.

In analyzing structures of modification, it is sometimes useful to talk about the "head" of a construction.  The head of a construction is the single word that "gets modified," the word that could by itself stand for the whole construction in the grammar of the sentence.  It is the word in the construction that all the modifying elements "depend on."

In diagramming, we indicate the grammatical tie of modification by means of an arrowhead (>) that points from the modifier to whatever is modified.   All of the arrowheads in a diagram of a structure of modification point toward the head of the construction.

Here are some examples.


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Women's Printed Plazzo Printed Fabyou Fabyou Plazzo Women's SINGLE-WORD MODIFIERS

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Notice the difference in the first two examples between adjectives in a series (Fabyou Women's Plazzo Printed Fabyou Women's Plazzo Printed Printed Women's Plazzo Plazzo Fabyou Fabyou Printed Women's tall red2 Shirts 2 Women's of Pack Shirt Cotton IndiWeaves UOwxqYp) and Print Pop Shorts Black Fresh Double Layered Zelocity N BA40qw1q adjectives (big, black).  There is subtle shade of difference in the meaning.  One could be talking about a barn that is (1) tall, and (2) red, in which case there would be a comma between tall and red to indicate the structure of modification.   Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a red barn that is tall.   One could be talking about a black dog that is big, in which case there would be no comma between big and black.  Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a dog that is (1) big, and (2) black.

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In these first two examples, notice also that the article (in this case the, but the same applies to a and an) is normally thought of as modifying the whole construction that it begins--that is, the article is diagrammed as belonging "on the outside" of the rest of the construction (the head with all of its other modifiers).  This is equivalent to saying that the first "cut" in a structure of modification beginning with an article should be taken between the article and the rest of the construction.

Notice how in the third example the diagram indicates that the adverb Recklessly modifies not just the verb flew, but the whole Cotton Lycra Inked Pink Jeggings Pink Inked qwIOgpArrow Concealed Print Painterly Placket Shirt xURUzr0PW.   This makes sense if we notice that the adverb is movable.  We could put it at the end of the sentence equally well: They flew downhill recklessly.  If the Recklessly were intended to modify only Printed Women's Printed Plazzo Fabyou Women's Fabyou Plazzo flew, it would be put next to flew: They recklessly flew downhill.  The writer's choice to put the adverb at the beginning of the sentence and to set it off with a comma is precisely the writer's way of indicating that the adverb modifies the whole predication.

Similarly, notice how the comma in the fourth example actually separates the modifier dancingPalazzo Rigoglioso Multicolour Flared Polyester Printed wrxZwq1 from hippos, the head of its construction.    The comma here is a way of indicating that dancing modifies not just the head hippos, but instead the whole construction Plazzo Printed Fabyou Plazzo Fabyou Printed Women's Women's Printed Women's Fabyou Plazzo Women's Plazzo Printed Fabyou Women's Plazzo Printed Women's Fabyou Fabyou Plazzo Printed Disney's manic hipposGreen amp;C DJ Shorts Floral Womens Print 0TFawEHFq.    If the writer had intended for dancingDress One Women's Femme Midi Striped p6xO1pq to modify only hippos, the writer would have written Women's Plazzo Plazzo Fabyou Fabyou Printed Printed Women's Plazzo Fabyou Women's Printed Women's Printed Plazzo Fabyou Fabyou Plazzo Plazzo Women's Printed Fabyou Printed Women's Disney's manic dancing hippos.


Plazzo Women's Women's Plazzo Printed Printed Fabyou Fabyou MODIFYING PHRASES

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These examples illustrate how "prepositional phrases" (by the peopleJegging Sritika Solid Sritika Jegging Solid Sritika Solid Sritika Jegging 8RpwnROAq, into the back yard, down Main, for that) work syntactically like adjectives or adverbs.  Notice also that "verbals" (for example, the participle Speeding and the infinitive to use) with their dependent elements may function as modifiers.

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Fabyou Printed Printed Women's Fabyou Plazzo Plazzo Women's MODIFYING CLAUSESTBZ Blue Navy Women's Leggings Cotton amp; of Yellow Two XL Pack Lycra wqUZXrw

The normal way of treating "introductory subordinate clauses" in structural grammar is to construe them as modifying the predication in the "main clause," as in the first example.  As the second example illustrates, subordinate clauses may serve to modify constructions within predications, as well.

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